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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals



Fish with poisonous epidermal gland secretions (ichthyocrinotoxic)

Clinical entries

For clinical data see section “Risk” below


There is a risk of poisoning with consumption of the skin of several species from the following families (Auerbach and Halstead 1989):

  1. Myxinidae
  2. Petromyzonidae
  3. Muraenidae
  4. Batrachoididae
  5. Serranidae
  6. Ostraciontidae


Pisces; 1. & 2.: Cyclostomata; 3-6.: Osteychthyes

Common names

  1. Hagfish, Inger
  2. Lampreys, Neunaugen
  3. Moray eels, Muränen
  4. Toadfishes, Froschfische
  5. Sea bass, Groupers, Zackenbarsche
  6. Trunkfishes, Kofferfische


Marine representatives, Petromyzontidae also in freshwater in the Northern Hemisphere.


Crinotoxic fish produce toxic secretions in their epidermal glands that are released into the water and thus possibly have a repellent effect on predators. Eating the skin can lead to gastrointestinal complaints. Even mere contact can cause a skin irritation. If such glands are associated with rays, parenteral envenoming may result.

Puffers, Porcupinefishes, Sharp-nosed puffers and possibly Trunkfishes are also crinotoxic, but represent an exception, as one of the secretions produced by their epidermal glands is the strongly potent tetrodotoxin, which is also found in the flesh and viscera. These fish are discussed under Tetrodotoxic fish.


Oral poisoning is caused by consumption of the skin. In Hagfish and Lampreys there is probably also poison in the flesh. There are no clinical data available, but the symptoms appear to be confined to gastrointestinal complaints.

Moray eels, Trunkfishes, Groupers and Toadfishes are also considered potentially ciguatoxic.


Symptomatic, see also ciguatera poisoning.

Literature (biological)

Halstead 1988, Auerbach and Halstead 1989, Bagnis et al. 1970