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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
North America
 
Mexico and Central America
 
South America and the West Indies
 
Europe
 
North Africa, Near and Middle East
 
Central and Southern Africa
 
The Far East
 
Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia
 
Australia and the Pacific Islands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Clinic

 

Boiga irregularis

Case reports

Guam
Fritts et al. 1990: 4 bites in children. Identification: geographical exclusion.

Signs & symptoms

Local effects

Local swelling with skin discolouration and blistering 3/4, local swelling without skin discolouration or blistering 1/4, necroses 0/4 (Fritts et al. 1990). 

Neurological effects

Ptosis 2/4, muscle weakness in the extremities 1/4, spastic movements of the extremities 1/4, respiratory problems 2/4, whereby one child suffered respiratory arrest (in one child, the treating doctor did not exclude an anaphylactoid cause of the serious course of the envenoming with respiratory arrest) (Fritts et al. 1990). In animal experiments (mice), a myotoxic effect of the poison was observed, with multifocal degeneration and necrosis of the muscle fibers, as well as myoglobinuria (Weinstein et al. 1991). 

Case fatality rate

0/4 (Fritts et al. 1990).

Treatment (symptomatic)

Artificial respiration.

Treatment (specific)

Antivenom: no antivenom available.